The Theory of Laser Materials Processing PDF ePub eBook

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The Theory of Laser Materials Processing free pdf Theuseoflasersinmaterialsprocessinghasbecomewidespreadinrecent years,sothatanunderstandingofthenatureofheatandmasstransferin thisbranchofmoderntechnologyisofincreasingimportance. Theaimofthe authorsofthisbookistoconcentrateonthephysicalprocesses-thesecanbe developedfromamathematicalpointofview,orfromdirectexperimental- derivedobservation. Thetwoapproachesarecomplementary-eachcanprovide insightsandthesynthesisofthetwocanleadtoaverypowerfulunderstanding oftheprocessesinvolved. Mathematicalmodellingofphysicalprocesseshas hadanimportantroletoplayinthedevelopmentoftechnologyoverthe centuriesandparticularlysointhelastonehundredand?ftyyearsorso. Itcanbearguedthatitismoreimportanttodaythaneverbeforesincethe availabilityofhigh-speedcomputersallowsaccuratenumericalsimulationof industrialprocessesatafractionofthecostofthecorrespondingexperiments. Thisisoneaspectofmathematicalmodelling,highpro?leandmuchvalued, butitisnottheonlyone. Inthepastmathematicalmodellinghadtorelyonqualitativeinves- gation,veryspecialanalyticalsolutions,orinaccurateandtime-consuming calculationsperformedwithlittleinthewayoftabulatedormechanical assistance. Logtablesandsliderulesarestillrememberedbypeopleworking today,thoughtherearesurelyfewwhoregrettheirdisappearance. Thevalueanddistinctivefunctionofmethodsbasedontheanalytical approachisnowbecomingmuchclearer,nowthattheyarenolongerexpected toproducedetailedimitationsofwhathappensinrealexperimentsofind- trialprocesses,afunctionnowful?lledmostlybynumericalmethods,c- sideredbelow. Theemphasistodayisontheirabilitytocon?rmandextend ourunderstandingofthebasicphysicalmechanismsinvolvedintheprocesses of interest. These are essential for any intelligent use of numerical simulation. Theargumentaboutthevalueofteachingpeoplehowtodoarithmetic themselveswithouttheaidofacalculatorseemstobepassingintohistory, vi Preface butitisanimportantoneandprovidesasimpleanalogy. Ifsomeonedoes nothaveafeelingfornumbersandthewayarithmeticworks,theywillalltoo easilyfailtospotanerrorproducedbyamachine. Computersarenotinfallible -andneitherarethosewhobuildorprogramthem. Computersarenow takingonlessmundanemathematicaltasksandthesamecontroversiesare appearinginconnectionwithalgebraicmanipulation. Equally,andwitheven greaterpenaltiesintermsofcostintheeventoferrors,thesameconsiderations applytonumericalsimulationofmajorindustrialprocesses. Awarenessofthe analyticalsolutionscanbeinvaluableindistinguishingtherightfromthe wrong,i. e. forthepractitionertounderstandthebasisofthework,andto haveanideaofthekindsofoutcomesthatareplausible-andtorecognise thosewhicharenot. Thephrase"mathematicalmodelling"is,however,ambiguous,perhaps morenowthanithaseverbeen. Thereisanenormousamountofworkdone todayonsimulationbasedontheuseofverypowerfulcomputerprograms, anditisquitecorrectlyreferredtoasmathematicalmodelling. Theprograms aresometimesconstructedin-housebutareusuallycommercialpackages. This isanentirelyvalidapproachwithspeci?c(generallycommercial)objectives. Ingeneraltherearetwouses. Thedominantobjectiveisnumericalagreement withaparticularexperimentinthe?rstinstance,leadingtopredictivec- mercialuseinthesecondinstance. Thesecondobjectiveistheclari?cation ofphysicalmechanisms,aimedatthegenerationofunderstandingofcomplex interconnectedprocesses,ratherthantheexactreproductionofaparticular experiment. Itissometimesoverlookedthat,withsu?cientcare,anum- icalapproachisequallyvalidintheinvestigationofphysicalfundamentals. Numericalsimulationisnotacentraltopicofthisbook,butbecauseofits crucialimportancetoeachofthetwousestowhichnumericalmodellingcan beput,itisvitalthatthecomputationalbasisoftheworkshouldbec- pletelysound. Inaddition,thelevelofprocessdetailwhichcanbeconsidered bythenumericalapproachusuallyexceedswhatispossiblewiththeanaly- calapproachsigni?cantly,leavinglittlechoicebuttoreverttothenumerical treatmentwheninvestigatingtheinterconnectionsbetweenprocesses. Itis forthesereasonsthatthebookconcludeswithachapteroncomprehensive numericalsimulation. Inmanyways,theapproachadoptedhereiscomplementarytothemore phenomenologicalapproach. Itisalwaysimportantina?eldwhichhasvery directindustrialapplicationstobearinmindhowtechniquessuchasthose describedherewillbeused,butitisessentialnottolosesightofthef- damentals. Thereareserioussafetyimplications-therearecostimplications- therearemoralimplications-thereareconsiderationsoftheappropriateness ofthetechnologytotheapplicationunderconsideration. Aproperrespectfor alltheserequiresanunderstandingofthefundamentals. Wearealltoowellawarethatthisbookdoeslittlemorethanscratch thesurfaceoftheproblemsinvolvedinafundamentalunderstandingofthese phenomena. Ifwehaveprovidedideasandinformationthatcauseothersto Preface vii testthemexperimentallyorintellectually,agreewiththemordisputethem vigorously,anddevelopthemfurther,wewillconsiderthatwehaveachieved ouraim. Colchester April,2008 JohnDowden Contents 1MathematicsinLaserProcessing JohnDowden...1 1. 1 MathematicsanditsApplication...1 1. 2 FormulationinTermsofPartialDi?erentialEquations...3 1. 2. 1 LengthScales...3 1. 2. 2 ConservationEquationsandtheirGeneralisations...4 1. 2. 3 GoverningEquationsofGeneralised ConservationType...7 1. 2. 4 Gauss'is,however,ambiguous,perhaps morenowthanithaseverbeen. Thereisanenormousamountofworkdone todayonsimulationbasedontheuseofverypowerfulcomputerprograms, anditisquitecorrectlyreferredtoasmathematicalmodelling. Theprograms aresometimesconstructedin-housebutareusuallycommercialpackages. This isanentirelyvalidapproachwithspeci?c(generallycommercial)objectives. Ingeneraltherearetwouses. Thedominantobjectiveisnumericalagreement withaparticularexperimentinthe?rstinstance,leadingtopredictivec- mercialuseinthesecondinstance. Thesecondobjectiveistheclari?cation ofphysicalmechanisms,aimedatthegenerationofunderstandingofcomplex interconnectedprocesses,ratherthantheexactreproductionofaparticular experiment. Itissometimesoverlookedthat,withsu?cientcare,anum- icalapproachisequallyvalidintheinvestigationofphysicalfundamentals. Numericalsimulationisnotacentraltopicofthisbook,butbecauseofits crucialimportancetoeachofthetwousestowhichnumericalmodellingcan beput,itisvitalthatthecomputationalbasisoftheworkshouldbec- pletelysound. Inaddition,thelevelofprocessdetailwhichcanbeconsidered bythenumericalapproachusuallyexceedswhatispossiblewiththeanaly- calapproachsigni?cantly,leavinglittlechoicebuttoreverttothenumerical treatmentwheninvestigatingtheinterconnectionsbetweenprocesses. Itis forthesereasonsthatthebookconcludeswithachapteroncomprehensive numericalsimulation. Inmanyways,theapproachadoptedhereiscomplementarytothemore phenomenologicalapproach. Itisalwaysimportantina?eldwhichhasvery directindustrialapplicationstobearinmindhowtechniquessuchasthose describedherewillbeused,butitisessentialnottolosesightofthef- damentals. Thereareserioussafetyimplications-therearecostimplications- therearemoralimplications-thereareconsiderationsoftheappropriateness ofthetechnologytotheapplicationunderconsideration. Aproperrespectfor alltheserequiresanunderstandingofthefundamentals. Wearealltoowellawarethatthisbookdoeslittlemorethanscratch thesurfaceoftheproblemsinvolvedinafundamentalunderstandingofthese phenomena. Ifwehaveprovidedideasandinformationthatcauseothersto Preface vii testthemexperimentallyorintellectually,agreewiththemordisputethem vigorously,anddevelopthemfurther,wewillconsiderthatwehaveachieved ouraim. Colchester April,2008 JohnDowden Contents 1MathematicsinLaserProcessing JohnDowden...1 1. 1 MathematicsanditsApplication...1 1. 2 FormulationinTermsofPartialDi?erentialEquations...3 1. 2. 1 LengthScales...3 1. 2. 2 ConservationEquationsandtheirGeneralisations...4 1. 2. 3 GoverningEquationsofGeneralised ConservationType...7 1. 2. 4 Gauss'Theuseoflasersinmaterialsprocessinghasbecomewidespreadinrecent years,sothatanunderstandingofthenatureofheatandmasstransferin thisbranchofmoderntechnologyisofincreasingimportance. Theaimofthe authorsofthisbookistoconcentrateonthephysicalprocesses-thesecanbe developedfromamathematicalpointofview,orfromdirectexperimental- derivedobservation. Thetwoapproachesarecomplementary-eachcanprovide insightsandthesynthesisofthetwocanleadtoaverypowerfulunderstanding oftheprocessesinvolved. Mathematicalmodellingofphysicalprocesseshas hadanimportantroletoplayinthedevelopmentoftechnologyoverthe centuriesandparticularlysointhelastonehundredand?ftyyearsorso. Itcanbearguedthatitismoreimportanttodaythaneverbeforesincethe availabilityofhigh-speedcomputersallowsaccuratenumericalsimulationof industrialprocessesatafractionofthecostofthecorrespondingexperiments. Thisisoneaspectofmathematicalmodelling,highpro?leandmuchvalued, butitisnottheonlyone. Inthepastmathematicalmodellinghadtorelyonqualitativeinves- gation,veryspecialanalyticalsolutions,orinaccurateandtime-consuming calculationsperformedwithlittleinthewayoftabulatedormechanical assistance. Logtablesandsliderulesarestillrememberedbypeopleworking today,thoughtherearesurelyfewwhoregrettheirdisappearance. Thevalueanddistinctivefunctionofmethodsbasedontheanalytical approachisnowbecomingmuchclearer,nowthattheyarenolongerexpected toproducedetailedimitationsofwhathappensinrealexperimentsofind- trialprocesses,afunctionnowful?lledmostlybynumericalmethods,c- sideredbelow. Theemphasistodayisontheirabilitytocon?rmandextend ourunderstandingofthebasicphysicalmechanismsinvolvedintheprocesses of interest. These are essential for any intelligent use of numerical simulation. Theargumentaboutthevalueofteachingpeoplehowtodoarithmetic themselveswithouttheaidofacalculatorseemstobepassingintohistory, vi Preface butitisanimportantoneandprovidesasimpleanalogy. Ifsomeonedoes nothaveafeelingfornumbersandthewayarithmeticworks,theywillalltoo easilyfailtospotanerrorproducedbyamachine. Computersarenotinfallible -andneitherarethosewhobuildorprogramthem. Computersarenow takingonlessmundanemathematicaltasksandthesamecontroversiesare appearinginconnectionwithalgebraicmanipulation. Equally,andwitheven greaterpenaltiesintermsofcostintheeventoferrors,thesameconsiderations applytonumericalsimulationofmajorindustrialprocesses. Awarenessofthe analyticalsolutionscanbeinvaluableindistinguishingtherightfromthe wrong,i. e. forthepractitionertounderstandthebasisofthework,andto haveanideaofthekindsofoutcomesthatareplausible-andtorecognise thosewhicharenot. Thephrase"mathematicalmodelling"is,however,ambiguous,perhaps morenowthanithaseverbeen. Thereisanenormousamountofworkdone todayonsimulationbasedontheuseofverypowerfulcomputerprograms, anditisquitecorrectlyreferredtoasmathematicalmodelling. Theprograms aresometimesconstructedin-housebutareusuallycommercialpackages. This isanentirelyvalidapproachwithspeci?c(generallycommercial)objectives. Ingeneraltherearetwouses. Thedominantobjectiveisnumericalagreement withaparticularexperimentinthe?rstinstance,leadingtopredictivec- mercialuseinthesecondinstance. Thesecondobjectiveistheclari?cation ofphysicalmechanisms,aimedatthegenerationofunderstandingofcomplex interconnectedprocesses,ratherthantheexactreproductionofaparticular experiment. Itissometimesoverlookedthat,withsu?cientcare,anum- icalapproachisequallyvalidintheinvestigationofphysicalfundamentals. Numericalsimulationisnotacentraltopicofthisbook,butbecauseofits crucialimportancetoeachofthetwousestowhichnumericalmodellingcan beput,itisvitalthatthecomputationalbasisoftheworkshouldbec- pletelysound. Inaddition,thelevelofprocessdetailwhichcanbeconsidered bythenumericalapproachusuallyexceedswhatispossiblewiththeanaly- calapproachsigni?cantly,leavinglittlechoicebuttoreverttothenumerical treatmentwheninvestigatingtheinterconnectionsbetweenprocesses. Itis forthesereasonsthatthebookconcludeswithachapteroncomprehensive numericalsimulation. Inmanyways,theapproachadoptedhereiscomplementarytothemore phenomenologicalapproach. Itisalwaysimportantina?eldwhichhasvery directindustrialapplicationstobearinmindhowtechniquessuchasthose describedherewillbeused,butitisessentialnottolosesightofthef- damentals. Thereareserioussafetyimplications-therearecostimplications- therearemoralimplications-thereareconsiderationsoftheappropriateness ofthetechnologytotheapplicationunderconsideration. Aproperrespectfor alltheserequiresanunderstandingofthefundamentals. Wearealltoowellawarethatthisbookdoeslittlemorethanscratch thesurfaceoftheproblemsinvolvedinafundamentalunderstandingofthese phenomena. Ifwehaveprovidedideasandinformationthatcauseothersto Preface vii testthemexperimentallyorintellectually,agreewiththemordisputethem vigorously,anddevelopthemfurther,wewillconsiderthatwehaveachieved ouraim. Colchester April,2008 JohnDowden Contents 1MathematicsinLaserProcessing JohnDowden...1 1. 1 MathematicsanditsApplication...1 1. 2 FormulationinTermsofPartialDi?erentialEquations...3 1. 2. 1 LengthScales...3 1. 2. 2 ConservationEquationsandtheirGeneralisations...4 1. 2. 3 GoverningEquationsofGeneralised ConservationType...7 1. 2. 4 Gauss'sLaw...10 1. 3 BoundaryandInterfaceConditions...11 1. 3. 1 GeneralisedConservationConditions...11 1. 3. 2 TheKinematicConditioninFluidDynamics...13 1. 4 Fick'sLaws...15 1. 5 Electromagnetism...15 1. 5. 1 Maxwell'sEquations...15 1. 5. 2 Ohm'sLaw...18 References...19 2SimulationofLaserCutting WolfgangSchulz,MarkusNiessen,UrsEppelt,KerstinKowalick...21 2. 1 Introduction...22 2. 1. 1 PhysicalPhenomenaandExperimentalObservation...23 2. 2 MathematicalFormulationandAnalysis...26 2. 2. 1 TheOne-PhaseProblem...29 2. 2. 2 TheTwo-PhaseProblem...42 2. 2. 3 Three-PhaseProblem...51 2. 3 Outlook...64 2. 4 Acknowledgements...65 References...65 x Contents 3KeyholeWelding:TheSolidandLiquidPhases AlexanderKaplan...71 3. 1 HeatGenerationandHeatTransfer...71 3. 1. 1 Absorption...

About John Dowden

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Details Book

Author : John Dowden
Publisher : Springer
Data Published : 23 November 2014
ISBN : 9400789599
EAN : 9789400789593
Format Book : PDF, Epub, DOCx, TXT
Number of Pages : 390 pages
Age + : 15 years
Language : English
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